No. 54 – PRASAT KANDOL DOM (NORTH) INSCRIPTION OF INDRAVARMAN

Prasat kandol dom is situated about 330 yards to the west of the outer walls of Prah-Ko in the province of Sutnikom.
The inscription contains 48 verses in Sanskrit (metre Shlokas) and 49 lines in Khmer. Very little remains of the first nine verses which contained the invocation. Then follows the eulogy of king Indravarman (vv 10-28) whose orders were obeyed by the kings of China, Champa and Yavadipa (v-20). Next we have the eulogy of Sivasoma, the guru of the king Indravarman and the author of the inscription (29-42 verses). He was the grandson of king Jayendradhipativarma, who was the maternal uncle of the king JayavarmanII (v- 30). Sivasoma is said to have studied the Shastras at the feet Bhagavan Shankara. Presumably the great scholar of India of that name. Sivasoma is also mentioned as the preceptor of king Indravarman in the Sdok Kak Thom inscription. The epithet Dakshinacar in I.32 shows that he was a tantric and this seems to support the views of some scholars, like Woodroffe, who ascribe the authorship of some tantras to Shankara.

The object of the inscription was mentioned in the concluding verses which are mostly illegible. One of these verses 44, contains the name of the god Bhadreshvara. Now as the Khmer text begins with an invocation to Bhadeshvara, it seems likely that the inscription recorded the installation of this god by Sivasoma. The Khmer text gives the date of this foundation, Viz 80X ,i.e some time between 878 and 887 A.D., and contains a long list of slaves.

अतॄप्तिपीतमवलानेत्रैस्सुभगतामृतम्।
येन शोषभयेनेव जगतां हृदयेऽर्पितम्॥१४॥
The nectarine beauty of the King’s form is such that it took refuge in people’s hearts, as otherwise there was the danger of its being dried up by eyes of people, who were never satisfied by seeing it.

यत्तेजो जिततेस्वितेजोजातभयो ध्रुवम्।
वीक्ष्य कालाग्निरुद्रोऽपि भवत्यद्याप्यधोमुखः॥१५॥
The splendour of the King is such that even Kalagnirudra hangs his head down in fear that his own brilliance might be defeated by the king’s.

सारापहृतये भूयो बाहुमन्दरमन्थनात्।
नूनम्भीतोऽम्बुधिर्यस्मै गाम्भीर्यमदिशत् करम्॥१६॥
The ocean gave the king’s hand the impressive majesty in fear that in case the king churned the ocean using his arms as the churning rod (like Manthara mountain), the ocean would lose its precious contents again.

यस्य याने बलोद्धूतरजसा दिग्विसर्पिणा।
अल्पाहमिति मेदिन्या स्वाङ्गीकृतमिवार्णवः॥१७॥
On seeing the cloud of dust raised forcefully and spreading in all directions during movement of the king’s chariot, the earth concluded that it is powerless and accepted, as it were, the ocean as its part.

रणेभकुम्भनिर्भेदलग्नमुक्तालसत्करम्।
शुल्काभिशङ्कयेवारिलक्ष्मीवेश्या समन्वगात्॥१८॥
On seeing the king’s hands, shining with pearls and engaged in breaking the foreheads of elephants in battle, Lakshmi came out of waters on the suspicion that the king is paying the dowry for her.

अतुल्यविक्रमाक्रान्तनिश्शेषपृथिवीधरः।
प्रयान्तं पार्श्वतो मेरोर्यो जहासेव भास्करम्॥१९॥
As the king, who has conquered the entire earth with no portion left, with his unparalleled valour, moves about beside the Meru mountain, he appears to make fun of Surya.

चीनचम्पायवद्वीपभूभृदुत्तुङ्गमस्तके।
यस्याज्ञा मालतीमालानिर्मला चुम्बलायते॥२०॥
In the regions of China, Champa, Yavadvipa including their mountain peaks, the king’s order is obeyed lovingly like kissing a garland of white Malati flowers.

यस्य यज्ञाग्निहोत्राणां खे बभुर्धूमपङ्क्तयः।
कीर्तेस्त्रिदिवयात्रार्थं ध्वजा इव पुरोगताः॥२१॥
The king’s yagnas and Agnihotras produced streams of smoke in the sky, which appeared as if they are the flagstaffs proceeding in advance towards the heavens for spreading the king’s fame.

यस्य हेमादिदानाम्भोभूरिधाराप्लुता मही।
शङ्के कल्पाग्निदग्धापि नाभ्रधाराधरं व्यधात्॥२२॥
The waters offered at the time the king gives religious gifts (danas) flood the earth such that one suspects that even when burnt in the great fire at the end of Kalpa, the earth will not suffer.

नित्यं विदधती यस्य कीर्तिर्भुवनभासनम्।
पर्यायतो विदधतौ हसतीवेन्दुभास्करौ॥२३॥
The king’s fame shines across the world such that it appears to make fun of the parallel shining Moon and Sun.
प्रकामलब्धकामस्य बभूवैव दरिद्रता।
यस्यापि बाहुदण्डस्य सदृशे प्रतियोद्धरि॥२४॥
In battle the state of his enemy warrior against his arms is same as that of poverty against one who has attained all his desires.
ध्वान्तवद्वननीलोऽपि यद्यशोदीपदीपितः।
पुनर्ग्रहणभीत्येव चरणौ रिपुरागमत्॥२५॥
Like a black coloured animal (monkey) in the forest in time of darkness on seeing light, the enemy of the king, brilliant with the light of fame, grabbed his feet in fear of being caught again.

पारगामी गुणाम्बोधेर्धरणीधारणोद्धरः।
लक्ष्मीमुवाह यो नित्यं चतुर्बाहुरिवापरः॥२६॥
The king has gone through the ocean of virtues and carries the burden of ruling the earth; like Vishnu, who brought out the earth from the ocean, he carriesLakshmi (Bhudevi).

श्रुत्वा यस्य गुणोत्कर्षान् जगद्गीतान् समन्ततः।
नूनं स्वं सृष्टिवैदग्ध्यं स्वयंभूर्बहुमन्यते॥२७॥
On hearing the songs of people on the great qualities of the king, Brahma is indeed proud of his dexterity in creation.
दत्तशेषोपभोगे यः सत्यसन्धोऽपि सद्रसम्।
सर्वोर्वीविजयावाप्तेर्भुक्तवान् न तु दत्तवान्॥२८॥
Though the king truthfully adheres to the principle of enjoying only what is left after giving in charity of even valuable things, he did not give away rulership of regions, but enjoyed himself, for the sake of conquering the entire earth.

तस्याचार्योऽखिलाचार्यवन्दनीयाङ्घ्रिपङ्कजः।
आसीद्विद्यासु निष्णातश्शिवसोम इतीरितः॥२९॥
The king’s Acharya is Sivasoma, whose feet are worshipped by all Acharyas and well versed in all branches of learning.

महेन्द्राद्रिस्थभूपालमातुलस्य महीभुजः।
यश्श्रीजयेन्द्राधिपतिवर्मणस्तनयात्मजः॥३०॥
The Acharya is the grandson of Sri Jayendradhipathiverman, who was the maternal uncle of the king, resident in Mahendra Parvata.

यस्याङ्घ्रिरानतानेकजरज्जटिजटारुणः।
अभ्यस्तध्यानदहनज्वालालीढ इवाबभौ॥३१॥
The Acharya’s feet shone with the red matted tresses of many sages falling at his feet and appeared as if enveloped in the brilliance of the flame of his long-practised meditation.
शास्त्रार्णवं पिबन् कृत्स्नं स्तम्भयन् रागभूभृतम्।
यस्सदा दक्षिणाचारः कुम्भयोनिरिवापरः॥३२॥
He had drunk the entire ocean of Sastras, keeping the vice of attachment at bay; he followed always the Tantra worship (the right handed ritual) and was like Sage Agastya.

फलनिःस्पृहचित्तोऽपि फलसञ्चितवृत्तिमान्।
विद्यया यस्सुपीनोऽपि तपसा कृशताङ्गतः॥३३॥
Though detached from desire of fruit, he had accumulated much fruit; though stout with learning, he was lean with austerities.

योगं विदधतो यस्य मूर्द्धतो ज्योतिरूर्ध्वगम्।
दग्धान्तर्ध्वान्तनिर्धौत ज्ञानाग्न्यर्चिरिवाबभौ॥३४॥
The yoga practised by the Acharya led to upward flash of light emanating from his head; it shone like a brilliant fire of Gnana, having burnt all internal darkness and cleansed the intellect.

पवित्रतीर्थसन्दोहनिर्गमद्वारि यन्मुखे।
सरस्वती सदोवास वाञ्छ्न्तीवातिपुण्यताम्॥३५॥
In his mouth, which appeared like the gate of outflow of holy waters, Saraswati lived always, desiring greater merit.

यस्याङ्घ्रियुगलाम्भोजरजस्स्पृष्टैव मानुषाः।
सर्वतीर्थाभिषेकाणामवाप्तं मेनिरे फलम्॥३६॥
Men reckoned that touching the dust of the lotus feet of the Acharya is as meritorious as bathing in the holy waters of all tirthas.

विषमेऽपि समा यस्य लोके लोकोपकारिणः।
शुद्धधीगगणारूढा रुचिश्शुभ्ररुचेरिव॥३७॥
Those who help others in this world are equanimous even in adversity; anything thought with pure mind appears with white lustre.

दयात्यागधृतिक्षान्तिशौचसत्यादयो गुणाः।
यस्तेषामेक आधारो विधात्रेव विनिर्मितः॥३८॥
It appears that the Acharya is the only support of virtues like compassion, renunciation, steadfastness, patience, purity, truth etc., created by Brahma.

येनाधीतानि शास्त्राणि भगवच्छङ्कराह्वयात्।
निश्शेषसूरिमूर्धालिमालालीढाङ्घ्रिपङ्कजात्॥३९॥
The Acharya studied Sastras at the lotus feet of Bhagavan Sankara, which were embraced by the garlands at the heads of prostrating gods.

सर्वविद्यैकनिलयो वेदविद्विप्रसम्भवः।
शासको यस्य भगवान् रुद्रो रुद्र इवापरः॥४०॥
The Acharya is the only repository of all Vidyas and scholar of Vedas, born in brahmana lineage; his god is Bhagavan Siva and he shines like Siva himself.

विद्यया वयसा वृद्धानुपास्यान्यान् विपश्चितः।
तर्ककाव्यादिसम्भूतामिद्धबुद्धिमवाप यः॥४१॥
Adoring elders in learning and age and other wise men, he has acquired a blazing intellect, born out of mastery in logic, poetry etc.

पुराणभारताशेषशैवव्याकरणादिषु।
शास्त्रेषु कुशलो योऽभूत् तत्कारक इव स्वयम्॥४२॥
The Acharya has become master of Puranas, Mahabharata, Saivite literature, grammar, Sastras etc. in such a manner that he appears to be the author of those works himself.
Translated by P.R.Kannan, Navi Mumbai

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